* Previously known as the Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) style, but now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002. It is based on the Harvard or author-date system for books, articles and “non-books”.
* It is a modified version of the style presented in: Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th ed., formerly known as the AGPS Style manual.
* The author-date system can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations and the use of italics. The most important principle in referencing is to be consistent.
* All sources used in assignments, essays, reports and theses must be acknowledged in the text of your document giving the author’s name followed by the publication date (these are called ‘in-text citations’).
* Brief quotations (about 30 words or less) can be included in the body of the text. Use single quotation marks. Page numbers must also be given for direct quotes.
* Lengthy quotations (greater than 30 words) are given in separate paragraphs which are indented from both left and right margins. The use of italics and single line spacing distinguishes lengthy quotations from the main text. No quotation marks are used. Citations are as above and appear at the end of the quotation.
* A ‘bibliography’ or ‘reference list’ at the end of your document contains the full details of all the in-text citations, arranged alphabetically.
For Citing Print Sources (Books)
1. Books: The details required, in order, are:
1. name(s) of author(s), editor(s), compiler(s) or the institution responsible
2. year of publication
3. title of publication and subtitle if any (all titles must be underlined or italicized with sentence style capitalization as below)
4. series title and individual volume, if any
5. edition, if other than the first
7. place of publication
8. page number(s) if applicable
Woodward, JA 1997, Writing research papers: investigating resources in cyberspace, NTC Publishing Group, Lincolnwood, Ill.
More than one author
Lamble, J & Morris, S 2001, Online and personal: the reality of internet relationships, Finch Publishing, Lane Cove, NSW.
Lansbury, RD & Davis, EM (eds) 1996, Managing together: consultation and participation in the workplace, Longman, Melbourne.
Sponsored by institution, corporation or other organization
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996, 1996 Census dictionary, Cat. No. 2901.0, ABS, Canberra.
Conrad, P 1990, Balancing home and career: skills for successful life management. The Fifty-Minute Series, Crisp Publications, Los Altos, Calif.
Hoggett, JR, Edwards, L & Medlin, JF 2003, Accounting in Australia, 5th edn, John Wiley, Milton, Qld.
Chapter or part of a book to which a number of authors have contributed No author or editor
Abraham, J 1997, ‘Science and politics of medicines regulation’, in MA Elston (ed.) Sociology of medical science and technology, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.
Cambridge advanced learner’s dictionary 2003, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
For an Article
2. Article: The details required, in order are:
1. name(s) of author(s) of the article
2. year of publication
3. title of article, in single quotation marks and sentence style capitalization as below
4. title of periodical (underlined or italicized with headline style capitalization as below)
5. volume number
6. issue (or part) number
7. page number(s)
Miner, M 1991, ‘The adjustment of long-term homeless youth’ Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol.26, no. 1, pp. 24-34.
Jones, C & Yaman, E 1997, ‘Casino chief fights the odds’, Australian, 22 December, p. 1.
Conference paper (published)
Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6. (Example from Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002)
Conference paper (unpublished)
Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June. (Example from Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002)
For Electronic Sources
3. Electronic Source: The basic form of the citations follow the principles listed for print sources:
1. name(s) of author(s) or the organization responsible for document, web page or site
2. year of publication of document, creation of page/site or date last revised
Note: if you cannot establish the date of publication, use n.d. (no date)
3. title of document or page, if applicable
4. edition, if other than first
5. type of medium, if necessary
6. name and place of the publisher, sponsor or host of the source
7. date item viewed
8. web page or site address, or name of database on internet (if applicable)
Law Institute of Victoria 2003, Law Institute of Victoria, Melbourne, viewed 28 November 2003, <http://www.liv.asn.au/>.
Pezzey, JC 2002, Sustainability policy and environmental policy, draft, 17 October, Economics and Environmental Network, ANU, viewed 18 November 2003, <http://een.anu.edu.au/download_files/een0211.pdf>.
Chappell, C 2003, ‘Researching vocational education and training: where to from here?’Journal of Vocational Education and Training, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 21-32, viewed 25 November 2003, <http://www.triangle.co.uk/vae/>.
Electronic journal from a database
Conley, T 2002, ‘The state of globalisation and the globalisation of the state’ Australian Journal of International Affairs, vol. 56 Issue 3, pp. 447-471, viewed 17 November 2003, retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.
‘Adult ADHD’ 2005, podcast, The Health Report, abc radio National, 28 November, accessed 29 November 2005, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt>.
Image on the internet
An offering to the ocean in La Punta, Peru 2009, image, sydney Morning herald 19 May, viewed 25 May 2009, <http://www.smh.com.au/snapshots>.
Photograph on the Internet
Sweetman, EA, 1935. The Square and Compass Inn, Worth Matravers, photograph, Dorset Coast Digital Archive, viewed 28 October 2009, <http://www.dcda.org.uk/images/jpg600/dcm_pht_11442d3.jpg>.
For a Thesis
4. Thesis Report: The details required, in order, are:
2. year of submission
4. name of degree
5. name of institution issuing degree
6. location of institution
Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
For a Map
5. Map: The details required, in order, are:
1. issuing body
3. title of map
6. place of publication
Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996, Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 Geological Series, Sheet 8158, Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.
Reference In Text
6. In Text Citation: In an author-date style, a textual citation generally requires only the name of the author(s) and the year of publication (and specific page(s) if necessary). This may appear at the end of a sentence, before the full stop.
‘Referencing can initially seem the most confusing aspect of essay writing’ (Gemov 2000, p. 150).
Germov (2000) suggests that referencing often confuses in the first instance…
[The examples are citied from “Harvard (AGPS) Style” of “Victory University”; “Referencing Guide: AGPS Harvard Style” of “Griffith University” and “References/Bibliography, AGPS STYLE 6th, ed” of “The University of Queensland”]
Writer: Education Specialist, Ankur ICT Development Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.