Abstract: Video technology is increasingly used as an effective instructional tool in teacher training programmes for inclusive education. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is one of the innovative approaches originated in the Netherlands uses videos for guidance and behavioural interventions to support to teacher and parents conducting children with special needs. ‘It involves participants in viewing and discussing very short recordings of their successful interactions with a Video Interaction Guider’ (Sked: 2006). VIG has the potential to enhance the interactive learning style individually and collectively through its reflective and collaborative learning features. The present article analyses how good practices of VIG strategy can be fit into the in-school teacher training programmes in Bangladesh to develop self-supported teacher guidance facilities to response effectively in pupils’ different educational needs. It also discusses concerns for cost–effectiveness and potential incorporation with the existing training framework. The analysis shows existing regional resource centres and existing clusters training programme could be incorporated with VIG as a strategy for effective teacher support system to deal with the children with special needs which ultimately leads the school as a self dynamic and cooperative inclusive learning centres.
Key Words: Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), Inclusive Education, Special Education Needs (SEN), Teacher training, Reflecting learning
Using video in teacher education is increasingly recognized and practised as an effective instructional tool in the teachers’ education programmes across the world. One of the key reasons is its potential to capture many aspects of classroom practices through its capability to record visual and aural richness and details (Farber & Nira, 1990, Wetzel et al: 1994 quoted in Fevre, 2004). The complexity of teaching and its multi contextual situation is hardly could be materializes through conventional abstract conversation or lecture method. Video could provide a rich and thick representation of practice that leaves distinctive mental images in the mind of the viewer (Fevre, 2004). Besides alike any other social phenomena, teaching practices could not be reproduced in the same way physical science does in the laboratory. Video recording gives the opportunity of revisiting the moment of teaching practices. it’s different control options like pause, rewind, jump forward, replay offers the practitioner to manages the complex and multidimensional aspect of teaching that are so challenging to grasp at the real time pace (Fevre, 2004).
The effective use of video is not yet brought out massively in the teacher education programme. General use of video showing and analysis does not reach its full potential to intervene behaviours. For example, a video on good practise of a training programme may give the impression of a good instructional strategy to the trainee but does not ensure internalizing specifically the link between the good practise and self. Hence, problem–focus interactive self-video analysis is being more popular recently. Video interaction analysis has been used in many forms like Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) or self-modelling.
Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is a comparatively new and innovative instructional strategy to support teachers and professionals to build action based self-awareness to communicate effectively with the children with Special Education Needs (SEN). ‘It (VIG) involves participants in viewing and discussing very short recordings of their successful interactions with a Video Interaction Guider’ (Sked: 2006). VIG could be used in educational setting or home as a tool to work with pupil, teacher or parents to improve positive interaction and communication. Participants through analysing short clips of video of themselves in different social situations (classrooms, Playground, home) reflect on their behaviour in relation to the context. A short provocative video could initiate and enhance the development of cultural self-awareness in educators as well as empowering them to develop cultural self-awareness in their young learners (Gallavan & Maria: 2005).
Historical and theoretical Background
Video interaction analysis originated 1980’s in the Netherlands by Dutch Psychologist Harrie Biemens and his team to support the communication between families whose children were in residential care. Later the method of Video interaction is widely familiar across Europe and the USA. Hilary Kennedy, research fellow of Dundee University brought the method first UK in 1992 (Brooks: 2008). Video interaction analysis now a systematic solution-focused tool in research and practice has been led by the educational psychologist, educators and social workers.
The theoretical underpinning of Video Interaction Guidance consists of several psychological and clinical researches. Though the method of video feedback was directly derived from the research strategy of Inter-subjectivity study by Trevarthen and Stern, a number of different independent theories also buttress VIG including the concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) of Vygotsky and the work of Dorwick and Brigs (Simpson:2001). The following sections will discuses each of the theories and how they back the video interaction guidance.
Trevarthen (1993) microanalysis study of infant–mother communication shows babies innate ability to communicate to other human especially mother and how these impulses activate mother response and finally establish communication. This unconscious affect also mechanise the attachment theory of Bowlby (1958) where neonate and mother reciprocally develop attachment through mutual communication. This mechanism has implication not just for relationship building but also for any context where guidance and learning take place (Simpson: 2001)
From the Vygotsky theoretical stances of Zone of Proximal Development and scaffolding also explain learners’ current knowledge level and where the guidance could help or start. Video interaction analysis gives guider and the participants a visual understanding of the current level of achievement as well as the potential area of development. On the basis of the present achievement, the participant enters the ZPD with professional help of Guider (means ‘scaffold’ new achievement).
Dowicks (1977) work of self modelling shows video feed back is powerful way to change one’s own behaviour. Backed by Bandura’s (1997) social learning theories and Skinner’s (1953) operant behaviour theory explains seeing oneself offers clearer picture of ones position to the efficacy of learning (Hitchcock, Dowrick & Prater: 2003). Microanalysis of the interactive video also shows how participants reinforce consciously or unconsciously each other to continue the communication. And how this feedback helps to enhance or terminate the behaviour. Hence in Video interaction guidance verbal and nonverbal or body reaction are very important and considered as the viewers self-reinforcement of own initiatives.
Objectives and Research Questions
The present article discusses how this video interaction could be used in the school as in school support teacher and pupils with special needs to implement the inclusive learning environment in school in Bangladesh.
1) What are the currents practices of VIG in the Netherlands and other countries?
2) How VIG can be used to support the mainstream teachers developing inclusive practices in Bangladesh
3) What are the Challenges to adopt VIG in the schools of Bangladesh?
4) What extant VIG could impact on inclusion process?
Document analysis and literature review: information from secondary sources like research articles, published books, VIG training manual, National Government publications report, and conference paper were the main source of information. Participatory VIG training session in Netherlands, interview Dutch school VIG instructor.
The procedure of VIG in the Netherlands
Video interaction analysis could be used in many different forms in different context from school to home to professionals to develop effective skills in conduction and support the children with special needs. In the educational area School Video Interaction Guidance (SVID), Video Interaction guidance (VIG) or Video Home Training (VHT) are more common in the Netherlands. Each of this has its own contextual method. Dutch schools are using VIG mostly for improving teacher-pupil interaction process. School Special Services Coordinator (SSC) who is an in-school professional specialist is responsible for this coaching to the teachers. After taking teacher’s consent and knowing their focus of problem SSC designs the VIG for the teachers. Informed consent is gained through explanation and exploration, building a relationship of trust. Nevertheless the respective teacher has to formulate his/her own problem focus or research question. After that SSC records a video clip of the respective teacher’s interaction with students in the class or in the field where the teachers focus the problem of interaction. The recoded video is analysed together with respective teacher to reflect his or her own successful interaction which can be used to replace negative interaction in future. It is important that SSC does not advice rather coach the participant teacher how to use his own reflection and strategy to solve the problem. In general having a two-week gap between two successive sessions, in total three VIG sessions are conducted in order to give the teacher opportunities to reflect his practices in the classroom. It is also significant to notice that this is a collegial consultancy, not an administrative measure to improve the professional development. Hence, a trustworthy relationship has to be maintained between the specialist and the teacher. A number of studies have shown its effectiveness of intervening behaviour. A meta-analysis study Ruben Fukkink (2008) of Kohnstamm Institute of Amsterdam University on 29 studies (n = 1844 families) shows a statistically significant positive effects of video feedback interventions on parenting behaviour and attitude with the development of the child. The study shows analysed video feedback enable parents more competent in interacting with their children and receives positive experience of playing role of parent.
Research finding shows self video analysis not help the teacher to improve their communication power but also assist the pupil with special needs to achieve new academic and social skills which ultimately let them sustain in the schools. Study (Schunk & Hanson: 1989) shows through self-modelling video analysis low achievers have better mathematical performance and gain self-efficacy.
Video analysis feed back have been widely used not only general education but also many different specialist field of education. Research shows video interaction analysis have been successfully used in music (Daniel: 2006), sports (Hammond & Perry: 2005), medical education (Brimble: 2008; Paul, Dawson, Lanphear & Cheema: 1998; Woolley & Jarvis: 2007).
Researches show use of video analysis improve both teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge (Santagata, Zannoni, & Stigler: 2007; Chuang & Rosenbusch: 2005). A two–year long study conducted by the University of Lazio, Italy for pre-service mathematics teacher training which was based on video lesson analysis addressed two questions: What can pre-service teachers learn from the analysis of videotaped lessons? How can pre-service teachers’ analysis ability, and its improvement, be measured? They claimed that both of studies showed the significant improvement of the ability to analyze instruction and the data suggest promising directions for the development of both an instrument to measure lesson analysis abilities and a model for teacher learning (Santagata et al: 2007). Chuang & Rosenbusch (2005) study on language education presents a case study of the use of digital video technology with a new pedagogical approach under a constructivist framework in an elementary school foreign language methods course. This case reports the vision of technology integration being realized. It results from the presence of technology, the instructor’s pedagogical knowledge, and his or her content expertise.
Several medical education studies also proved use of constructive video feedback has higher capacity to produce effective interaction between patients and students (Paul et al: 1998). A study (Brimble: 2008) aimed to explore student perceptions and support needs before, during and after video assessment in the simulated environment. The percentage of students who expressed concern before the experience decreased from 79 per cent to 58 per cent. While some concerns such as ‘nerves’ and ‘performance being affected by filming’ remained, many of the other pre-experience factors such as ‘being judged by others’, ‘making mistakes’, ‘feeling foolish or embarrassed’ and ‘worries about personal appearance’ had disappeared. All students rated video analysis as a useful and informative method of assessment and most preferred to receive assessment feedback in small groups. Another study (Woolley & Jarvis: 2007) shows how video analysis illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. The authors argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills.
How VIG can be used to support the mainstream teachers developing inclusive practices in Bangladesh
Although VHS video has been used for many years in the different institutes for the teachers training but as a technique of video interaction and micro analysis for behavioural change in mainstream school shows almost no literary support. Recently a number of attempts have been taken to introducing related technology like ‘Mobile learning’, learning through portable, handheld, electronic devices, generally with wireless communications capabilities. Under a technical assistance project financed by the ADB, RTI International carried out a study in Bangladesh to determine whether or not mobile phones could be an appropriate and effective method for supporting school-based in-service teacher training. The results show that the distance mode can be as effective as face-to-face training, and it is the strongly preferred mode by training participants (Pouezevara, Parajuli & Khan: 2007). The study at least proved possibilities of the acceptant of using newer technologies in the school level.
Bangladesh has a centralized education system with a large number of teachers (only 37 thousand Government primary schools out of 78 thousand employed around 160 thousand teachers, DPE Statistics, 2002). Training for these high numbers teachers not only cost huge amount of money but also need a long period of time. Most of the cases using cascade method of trainings are landed up with low quality and even just to meet the numbers of trainings. As a result the quality of school education especially primary schools suffer the most. The review of National Action of Plan (NPA1, 1991-2000) stated, ‘expanded facilities and produced a large number of trained teachers but the quality of primary education has failed to improve’. Therefore, my proposition is a built–in self upgrading learning environment could be the effective solution for this problem. A Self-upgrading learning programme needs self-awareness. VIG could be an effective tool for initiating learning from oneself own. In fact at present through existing sub-cluster training (a cluster of schools arrange training for themselves), VIG technique could be introduced. Full inclusion needs theoretical underpinning associated with practice (Zaretsky: 2005). A Conventional training hardly can develop the complex skills needed for conducting pupil with special needs. As VIG is based on solution focused learning and involved the teachers in the real time inclusion process, teacher get a hand in experience to deal with children with special needs. Thus VIG has more potential bringing the change of the teacher behaviour and attitude and believe system about inclusion process. These training tools will able teachers to see themselves and their potentiality as well as create scope to reflect on self-action. It will not only help them to find their own place to improve but also create an environment of reciprocal and collaborative learning, which eventually helps teachers become professional reflective teachers. A Dutch research (Korthagen & Wubbels: 2000) based on four studies shows reflective teachers have better interpersonal relationship with pupil, higher degree of Job satisfaction and also possess strong personal security and self–efficacy. The study also shows reflective teacher even encourage theirs students to reflect.
What are the Challenges to adopt VIG technique in the schools of Bangladesh?
Technology have been used in everywhere from city to small village, posh to slum area, living room to small video games booth through every forms of entertainment. It is unfortunate that the questions rise when it comes using technology in the school, the most important place in the society. Main challenges the educational field specifically schools are to face to the adoption of new technologies are the short-sighted conception of cost-effectiveness, ill-judged reliability and fear of technology (Chizmar & Williams: 2001, Butler & Sellbom: 2002).
As Van Horn (2000) remarks, ‘if you search the Internet for video, you’ll soon discover that the porn industry has embraced (maybe a choice of words) the technology…Second, just about every sector of the economy makes abundant use of digital and streaming video — except education’. For VIG it needs a computer, digital video camera which is now available in any local market. For present if not possible being affordable for schools buying VIG instruments, Upozila (the lowest public administration unit) Resources Centres (URC), which are already equipped with desktop computers could buy a laptop and digital video camera or even a multimedia projector. Thus the VIG guide can edit and bring the materials to the respective schools during the cluster training sessions or other special training sessions. Initially Upazilla resource officer could be trained as VIG guider who is already working as academic facilitator and has some training on inclusive education. As the VIG is being familiar with the school, the schools gradually own its own VIG equipments as well as one of the assistant teachers or headmaster will take over the position of guider.
Secondly, the conventional fear and concerns of technological reliability whither the teachers are capable of using these technologies. Van Horn (2001) raises the question other way around,
‘the technology is being used widely in homes by parents who make videos of their youngsters, it appears on all kinds of commercial sites, and even children in grade school make videos. Where are the educators, and why have they not embraced this marvellous technology?’
Relevant scientific innovations are emerging everyday and many of them are being used in our daily life but we can not use them massively in the schools systems. One of the key reasons that most design-based research does not explicitly address systemic issues of usability, scalability and sustainability; (Fishman, Marx, Blumenfeld, Krajcik & Soloway: 2004). But alike the Dutch psychologist Harrie Biemens, innovative ideas could be generated by the educators to enhance teaching learning process by using scientific innovation and technologies. Teacher training institutes in the Universities can take the leading role to experiment VIG or any other forms in small scale in its own teacher training programme. It could be also effective using this technology based training for the newly appointed teachers as well as student-teachers (internee students) who are attending the school as part of their graduation. However, limitation of using technology could be overcome if researches are conducted to addresses the challenges confronting technology innovations when implemented in real-world school contexts’ (Fishman et al: 2004).
What extant VIG could impact on inclusion process?
Video Interaction Guidance can bring a break through in establishing in-school or local training reformation. It can provide intensive support the teacher in understanding and developing inclusion practices in Bangladesh. VIG can produce far-reaching effect not only to change teacher education paradigm on inclusive education but also through a hand on experience bring the skills and behavioural change towards the SEN children. Besides it will help to change traditional pedagogical practice of knowledge transfer to knowledge construction which also impacts the teaching learning process in the classrooms. VIG will impacts at least three aspects of inclusive learning process developing teachers’ self-awareness, enhancing collaborative learning skill and thirdly reinforcing existing school-based training for the children with special needs.
The present conventional lecture method in the teacher training programmes hardly could able to connect theories to classroom practice. It has little scope to address individual learning needs of the different children. VIG does not aim to find the individuals problem but to recognize individual strengths. It discovers one’s self-position and where one’s learning needs to start. VIG promotes tailor made teaching learning process. The teacher himself decides what aspect of his practice is to improve and ask guider for the video analysis to explore that particular problem. It creates a spontaneous learning attitude. Furthermore VIG through a second by second guided self video analyses helps the teachers to understand how pupils react on their each of the behavioural stimulus. How their behavioural consequences create the effective communication of learning in the classroom. The process of seeing themselves communicating effectively is empowering and changes self perception (Deuchars & Strathie: 2008). Video analysis develops self-awareness involved in the interaction.
Secondly, as VIG emphasis behavioural intervention through a more empowering way of ‘coaching’ relationship which refers collaborative rather than prescriptive (Kennedy: 2007). As video interaction feed back based on collaborative understanding and conduct principals, the feedback guider stimulates the teacher analysing and developing a positive plan before and after viewing him in the screen. Study suggests (Akker & Bergen: 2000) a concrete, common didactic experience based co-operative coaching yields better results. The teachers develop professional sharing than confronting personal ego. Through this VIG process the teachers change and develop self awareness and the self modelling that takes place through viewing themselves, together with the support guider, all contribute to positive changes in communication and relationships with others (Deuchars & Strathie: 2008). Thus the whole school turns in a knowledge sharing environment.
Thirdly, as discuses before the demands of training for theses huge number of teacher is one of the main concerns for the country’s teacher education system. Dove (1983) in his study in 1980s recognized this concerned about Bangladesh and remarked, ‘without organising of school-based in-service training and supervision quality of teaching and learning in the schools may not improve’. At present school based trainings have been introduced through sub-cluster training all over the country. But no visible improvement in in-service sub-cluster training of teachers has found (NPA1, 2000). One of the reasons is the conventional training methodology which barely could motivate teacher learning. VIG can reinforce this strong framework of school based training and bring quality in the frame by creating dynamism through self-awareness and collaborative learning. Furthermore study (Anderson: 2006) shows video analysis not only helps teachers but also supports staffs to be more actively involved in interactions and teaching and learning opportunities.
Furthermore, once the teachers develop the fundamental use of technology and theory, they can use the technology for the individual SEN pupil in the class to foster their academic performance. Study (Woltersdorf: 1992, Schunk & Hanson: 1989, Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow & Power: 2006) shows evidence those video self-modelling increase academic and behavioural skills of the pupil with special needs which helps them to retain in the mainstream school.
Higher education institutions in Bangladesh are not easily accessible for the teachers living in the remote areas due to financial affordability and poor communications infrastructure. Likewise from time to time arranging institutional in-services teacher training is not cost-effective. Furthermore Inclusive educational approach which needs intensive and continues theoretical support as well as practice based training. Cascade method trainings can not afford to provide all these contents rather loose its intensity of quality before it reaches to the school teachers. Fruitless repeated training demotivates teachers for further training. Since all the teachers have basic initial teacher training, self-reflective training programme could be an effective strategy of continuous professional development. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) has the potential, first to create the scope of developing the teacher self- awareness and self-learning professionally to conduct with SEN child and secondly, to develop the school as a centre of knowledge sharing and collaboration for inclusive school. Therefore, VIG can be an excellent technique that would make educational activists and schools a dynamic and self learning individual as well as a knowledge sharing social inclusion unit.
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Author: Lecturer, Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.